The early history of Jews in Lemberg

The history of the Jewish community of Lviv has more than 700 years and starts since the founding of the city. Thus, the oldest city acts book has records from 1383 and 1384 which are about the Jewish community residing within the city fortifications. Some historians suggest that some Jews moved to the city in princely times from Kyiv destroyed by the Mongols. Some historians share the point of view about the Jews of the ancient city, as they came with the Karaites from Byzantium or even could be regarded as the descendants of the Khazar Khaganate. The first Jewish settlements established at the foot of the mountain High Castle in the time of the founding of the city in a suburb, which was later called Krakowske. However, it is possible that Jews inhabited even the settlement that was here prior to Lviv. The earliest information about the Jews of the Galician-Volynian Rus is known since the 11th century, there are the mentions about Jews from Przemysl in 1085.  Although according to the Jewish sources, as early as in the 9th century the Jewish merchants brought caravans with goods from the Pyrenees to Rus, including probably the northern Galicia. When Prince Lev moved the capital from Galich to Lviv, the Armenians, Tatars, Saracens, Karaites and Jews settled near the Rusiches. The princely city was between the western slopes of Castle Hill and the channel of Poltva river. Already in that ancient Lviv the Jewish community was the most numerous in Rus. This is confirmed by the chronicler of Lviv Józef Bartłomiej Zimorowic, who in 1270 wrote that in Lviv among the "clever merchants who came running to Russia even from overseas there were a lot of Jews who sold clothes, dishes and changed money ..." and marked that "the fruitful Jewish tribe grew to infinite". The second part of the Jews moved to the city from Germany and Bohemia in the XIV century thanks to the Polish king Casimir III, who in 1349 conquered the city of Lviv. Casimir III was the only European monarch who received the privilege of granting of Magdeburg Rights and issued a decree to adopt in their state of Jewish exiles from many European countries. In 1367 Casimir the Great gave separate privilege to the Jews in Lviv that likewise to the privilege of Boleslav Pious from 1264 to Jews of the Polish kingdom, confirmed the rights of the local Jews  to autonomy, free trades and lending, as well as safety from persecution. The Polish historian Jan Dlugosz explains this decree as a result of the passion of the king to his beloved beautiful Jewish woman Esther. A further global consequence of such a policy of Casimir was that in the late XIX - early XX centuries on the lands of the former Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (it is mostly Russian Poland, Austro - Hungarian empire and Russian Podillya) there were 70% of the world Jewry.


The picture of the center of the medieval city

Fast enough, with the influx of Jews from the West, the everyday language of the Jews of Lviv became an early version of the Yiddish language and those "German" Jews were called Ashkenazi - from the Jewish name of Germany - Ashkenaz. Lviv was the only European city where there was not one Jewish community, but two communities - the urban community and the suburban one. The more ancient and larger community was in the Krakow suburb on the castle lands on the right bank of Poltva (now Chornovil Avenue) to the southwest from the Old Market (existing since 1352), and the other community located in the city (existing since 1387) on the Jewish street. Probably some of the wealthy Jews moved from Pidzamche on the Poltva to the new center of the city. In addition, the fair is the idea that many Jews of the city center were new immigrants from Germany, Czechia, and Southern Poland. As professor Meir Balaban wrote the different origin explains the large differences that were visible to the beginning of the XX century in everyday life and mentality of the Jews from the city of Lviv and from the suburbs. According to the thoughts of the famous historian Jacob Shal, the Jews of the princely city had much in common with the local people of the city and it was reflected in their language, dress, and customs. Each community in Lviv has its separate life, had separate rights and privileges and only in extreme cases the both communities were joined each other. In 1356 Lviv got the Magdeburg Rights from King Casimir III, and the council was the body of bourgeois governments, so the Jews of the city obeyed to the governments, and another suburban community obeyed to the royal warden.  Before the 18th century the communities, in fact, feuded: the marriages between their representatives have been practically impossible, and the Jew from the suburbs would never move to downtown and vice versa.

The economic situation of the suburban Jewish community was somewhat better than for urban one: the wardens were interested in the increase of the profits of the king, and therefore of their own profits. That's why they strongly cared for the Jews and gave them privileges. Quite a different situation was in the center of the city. The Jews were considered as the competitors of local merchants and artisans. Hence, the restrictions in trade and craft were established. However, the suburban community was not protected so well from enemy attacks as the downtown community.

In the medieval period the Jews in Lviv was the fourth nation and created a separate religious and political community with its own autonomy that was independent of local authorities. In 1550 in the communities there were 559 and 352 Jews respectively, the both communities had the separate life, with their individual rights and with separate institutions, with their synagogues and ritual baths - mikveh, their qahals, courts and the governments, their schools, hospitals and shops. Common for them there was only the graveyard - cemetery, which was located at the Krakow suburb on the slopes of the hills on the left bank of Poltva and occupied the territory in the area of the modern Shpytalna, Kleparivska and Rappoporta streets (now the area of Krakowsky market). This cemetery is mentioned for the first time in documents from 1414. The oldest tombstone, which was at the cemetery up to its destruction by the Nazis, was a matzeva from 1348 at the grave of a boy named Yaakov. In this cemetery the Karaite were also buried (they had in the 15th century their own community with the temple - kenesa in the Krakow suburb, and in the 16th century the Karaites moved to Davidov.

The urban Jews were allowed to live only within their quarter. First, in the 14th century the Jewish community owned only a few houses, which apparently were wooden, but later the Jewish ghetto spreaded, it covered two main streets: the part of the modern Ivana Fedorova and Staroyevreyska streets. From the east side its boundary was the wall of urban arsenal, on the south side it was separated by the city wall. The western boundary was formed by a wall that protected the quarter and began from the Skotska (now - Serbska) street. From the north the Jewish houses were adjacent to the rear part of the houses on the Ruska street. For the night the Jewish gates were locked from the side of the city and within. The lands that stretched along the city walls belonged to territories of the low prestige because they were most vulnerable during attacks in Lviv. Due to the compact construction in the Jewish quarter and negligence to the safety rules the Jewish quarters often suffered from fires (1494, 1527, 1571, 1616), which often happened in Lviv. Specifically, on the 5th of August 1494, as Zymorovych writes, "Jews, who were the fire danger of the Christian world, turned a quarter of the city in ashes. The fire destroyed their homes, spread to the surrounding neighborhood, that was the Market Place... and nearby buildings of Rusyches... ". Due to the fires confrontation between Jews and consuls, who were responsible for the security of the whole city, occurred. In order to compensate for damages after a fire in 1616, through which the Jewish quarter was completely burned, Jews were allowed to build new wooden houses, as long as they became funds to build the houses made of stone. The height of the wooden houses should not exceed 2 floors, and for fire preventing fires they should have the stone basements and furnaces. After these houses became extremely old the construction of stone houses could be allowed.

In the center of the city there was the Great City Synagogue, which maintains the privilege of Casimir the Great about the oath of the urban Jews on the door of shul (synagogue). In 1387 the city books mention the Jewish street, and in 1407 they mention the Jewish Tower. Around the synagogue the life of the Jewish community was seething. In those days in the synagogues the courts, elections and qahal meetings were carried out. The first official meeting of the Lviv qahal was with all members took part in in 1497. Qahals were organized on the same basis as in other cities, but still had three judges. Each qahals consists of 40 men and two elders were representatives of the qahal. In 1634 the permission for the construction of a separate building for qahal meetings kahal opposite to the old city synagogue was granted. Later this building became Beit HaMidrash (House of Teaching), which was destroyed by the Nazis. The main person in the cultural and social life of each community was Rabbi. Since the late 17th century Lviv had two rabbis: "City Rabbi" and "suburban Rabbi" (of Rus province). Rabbis often were appointed and very seldom they were chosen. They were directly subordinated to the so-called Dayanim - Jewish court, consisting of 12 "urban" and 12 "suburban" judges. Socially Jews were structured on the top elite, the middle class and the poor and were guided by elders.

The both communities have been increased and become richer, their rich members helped to develop the Jewish culture. Since the second half of the 16th century in Ukraine the Talmudic science began to develop. At the "urban" and "suburban" synagogues there were yeshivas where taught the well-known sages and rabbis.

The quarter of the Jewish community in Lviv formed gradually. The consuls rented and gave for term of life to the rich Jews the empty areas on the allocated to them Jewish street, which was settled before by Rusyches. About this M. Balaban wrote: "Although the quarter is called the Jewish quarter, but in the second half of the 16th century there were the Russian buildings here, including the bourgeois houses under the city wall on the Boim street  (now - Staroevreyska street) 30, 32, 34". The Staroevreyska Street was previously divided into 3 parts, in 1871 the street was called Vekslyarska, and in 1888 it was renamed to the Boim street. At the corner of the present Ivana Fedorova street the remnants of the well from which the whole Jewish community took water remained. The construction of the Jewish quarter was held in accordance to the local building standards with the inherent density, boundary walls, water supply and drain. Since the ancient times, the downtown had the extensive plumbing system that covered the Jewish quarter too. In particular, in 1407 the money was allocated for sewage water pipes and for cylindrical tubes for the shul (synagogue) and for tubes for the Jewish Tower. In 1556 the local authorities made an agreement with the Jews in Lviv, in accordance to which they were allowed to build the well in the middle of their street and put the drinking water in this well, and they pledged to pay to the city cash annually 20 gold and 4 hryvnias for use of the city roads and bridges.

In general, due to the prejudice of the townsmen and anti-Jewish policy of the City Council and the Church the Jewish quarter station was isolated from the rest of the city for centuries.

The Jewish street (Blyakharska, and later in Austrian times Judengasse, now Ivana Fedorova street) was the main street in the narrow Jewish quarter close. It could be reached via the stone Jewish Gate (Porta Judaeorum), in Yiddish "das toyr". These gates were hung on two buttresses on the crossing of the Jewish and Ruska streets and protected the ghetto from various pogroms. The Jewish Gate was lower than both of the city gates - and Galician gate and Cracow gate, and also lower than the small city wickets - Bosiatzky wicket and Jesuit wicket, that's why they were known also as a wicket. Also their common name was "Jewish Gate". The gate existed up to the 18th century. At night the gate was locked from the both sides. The Jews were not allowed to settle outside the quarter. This led to their mass migration to small towns (shtetles) around the city.

In 1628 the Jews already possessed the 11 parcels in the downtown, where there were 35 houses. They also had an old (built in 1555) and new (built in 1582) synagogues, a house in which the rabbi and his students lived, as well as 5 tiny sculpted houses leaned to the city wall, generally 38 Jewish properties (according to data of Roman Zubyk there were 41 properties). About this there is written in the description of the city of Lviv by the merchant and traveler Martin Gruneveg, who lived there in 1582-1601: "In Lviv there are two streets inhabited by Jews. They live in the beautiful stone houses and have their stone synagogue". He recalled about the suburban community: "Many of them, Jews, live in the Krakow suburbs".

At the turn of the 16th and the 17th centuries the Jewish ghetto was mostly built by the ground and bunk houses and had plenty of free space, and there were also the old buildings. The rapid grow of the Jewish population has led to the rise in prices for land. After a fire in 1571 the magistrate forbade Jews to build wooden houses, but their request resulted in that the king overturned this prohibition. And after the fire in 1616 the look of the Jewish quarter was changed beyond recognition. On the place of the small wooden houses the four- and five-tier homes were built there, the yards and streets were under construction, and even the Jewish houses nearby the city wall appeared.

The basis of the economy of the Jewish Quarter was the brisk trade; the Jews were allowed to engage in craft and also moneylending. Because the Jews were the competitors of the merchants and craftsmen competitors the hate of citizens to the Jews appeared. Many Jews also rented the estates from the feudalists and the right to trade with alcohol in their properties.

The Jews of Lviv played an important role in the economic life of the city that was then an important center of transit trade with Poland, Turkey and its European and Asia Minor properties. They also engaged in domestic wholesale trade, rented estates, owned the distilleries and breweries, acting as customs and tax agents, lenders of the Polish kings and Galician nobles and tax farmers. In the second half of the 16th century in Lviv acted the banking house of Don Yosef Nasi worked. However, the most of Jews were still shopkeepers, peddlers and artisans.

The trading rights of the Jews in Lviv were based on Polish kings granted charters, abolishing or limiting them, especially in the areas of retail and crafts, all of them appeared on the constant demand of the local merchants of the Christian faith. Fortunately, the royal decrees, due to the requirements of the local merchants rarely had the absolute character, and they were always managed to make corrections.

In 1493 King Jan Albert restricted the Jewish wholesale of livestock and textiles, but King Alexander Yagellon in 1503 and 1506 regained their former rights. Sigismund I Old one time expanded them (in 1515), but other time he restricted these rights, in 1527 he overturned all restrictions, but the same year he renewed them, and the situation all the time was uncertain. In 1581, 1592 and 1662 between the city community and city government an agreement governing the commercial rights of Jews and advocated a temporary compromise between local authorities and Jews was concluded. The restoring of these agreements and determination of their exact content in the 17-18 centuries was accompanied by the protests of the Christian merchants and artisans. Only in the early 17th century the Jewish craftsmen managed to create their own shops.

Many Jews came to the city after 1569 from the west, when according to the Union of Lublin the Poles and the Jews got the right to move to the east, to the lands of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In the 15-16 centuries the center of cultural and economic life of the European Jews moved over from the countries on Rhine to the East - to Poland and Lithuania. That's when there was a mass resettlement of Jews in the lands of Western Ukraine. The Ashkenazi Jews expelled from Germany and persecuted in Hungary and Czechia were migrating here as well as the Sephardim Jews from the Iberian Peninsula - from Portugal and Spain that were different from the first in the culture, traditions, and way of life and were closer to the Spanish Jews from the period of Caliphate of Córdoba. Many of them settled in the cities and suburbs of the city, Przemysl, Drohobych... The Jewish community of Lviv together with the communities of Krakow, Poznan and Lublin were considered to be the largest in Europe after Venice. Ashkenazim and Sephardim precisely defined the nature and culture of the Jews of the Eastern Europe.

In 1656 King Jan II Casimir issued a prohibition to give to Jews the houses and shops outside the Jewish quarter for rent.  In 1709 the prohibition was confirmed by the city government of Lviv, and in 1710 King August II also confirmed it. However, the Jews managed to bypass the ban: in 1738 in Ukraine there were 70 stores belonging to Jews and trading without the trading rights.

In the Jewish quarter of Lviv the number of the population gradually increased, and prices for land on the territory of the ghetto increased hundred times in the 15th-16th centuries. Therefore, in the ghetto the highest in the city houses with five floors appeared. The stone construction on the Jewish street was created by the rich Jews of Lviv. Some of them are marked by their activities: in 1590 Reb Yisrael Yuzefovych bought the stone house from Zholkevsky on the Bliakharska street, 28 and adapted this building for yeshiva (Talmudic school), and his son-in-law Yehoshua Falk ben Alexander Cohen became the first rector of this yeshiva and a famous sage and the head of the Jewish Sejm in 1607; Menachem Simkha Emmanuel de Jona built the Renaissance stone house, called the Doctor house (on the Bliakharska street, 19).

This time  prominent rabbis settled in Lviv - among them Rabbi David ben Shmuel HaLevi Segal, who wrote the comments "Turei Zahav" to "Shulchan Aruch", after which the Nachmanowicz synagogue was named, and his brother Rabbi Yitzhak. In the early 17th century the famous Rabbi Mayer from Lublin was appointed as a rabbi of Jewish community of Lviv, but after there he left the city because of the conflict with Rabbi Yehoshua Falk. The end of the 16th and the early 17th century in Lviv were marked with the appearance of sponsors and financiers in the community.

We know that Lviv has been the administrative center of Galicia and the Jewish communities of Lviv had their representatives in the joint organization of the Jewish communities of the Eastern Europe. Among them the chief rabbi of the city Rabbi M. P. Hariph (1625-1702), Rabbi A. Rapoport (1584-1651), who for more than 40 years was the chairman of the Lviv yeshiva and was in charge of donations collecting to the Fund for the Jewish population in Eretz Yisrael, and Reb Menachem Simkha Emanuel de Iona (passed away in 1702), who was selected to be courtier physician of Jan III Sobieski, also being the parnas of the Jewish community, the ambassador and the speaker in the Sejm of crown Jews and the head of the association of the Jewish communities. The system of elections to the governing bodies of the community was lead to the consequence that only a small number of representatives of the noble and wealthy families could take such high positions (usually for long periods).

The more ancient synagogues in Lviv were wooden. The first stone synagogues were the Big City Synagogue and private Nachmanowicz synagogue. The both of these synagogues were built using the Western architectural style due to the influx of the Jews - immigrants from Italy and Germany, in the late 15th and the early 16th centuries to Lviv. They brought samples of the synagogues, which were created in Germany through a combination of cultures: German and traditional Jewish.

We know that Lviv has been the administrative center of Galicia and the Jewish communities of Lviv had their representatives in the joint organization of the Jewish communities of the Eastern Europe. Among them the chief rabbi of the city Rabbi M. P. Hariph (1625-1702), Rabbi A. Rapoport (1584-1651), who for more than 40 years was the chairman of the Lviv yeshiva and was in charge of donations collecting to the Fund for the Jewish population in Eretz Yisrael, and Reb Menachem Simkha Emanuel de Iona (passed away in 1702), who was selected to be courtier physician of Jan III Sobieski, also being the parnas of the Jewish community, the ambassador and the speaker in the Sejm of crown Jews and the head of the association of the Jewish communities. The system of elections to the governing bodies of the community was lead to the consequence that only a small number of representatives of the noble and wealthy families could take such high positions (usually for long periods).

The more ancient synagogues in Lviv were wooden. The first stone synagogues were the Big City Synagogue and private Nachmanowicz synagogue. The both of these synagogues were built using the Western architectural style due to the influx of the Jews - immigrants from Italy and Germany, in the late 15th and the early 16th  centuries to Lviv. They brought samples of the synagogues, which were created in Germany through a combination of cultures: German and traditional Jewish.

In 1582 on the costs of the famous Jewish philanthropist Isaac ben Nachman (Nachmanowicz) the Italian architect Paul Roman has built the synagogue in the style of late Gothic. In 1600-1606 the community converged in fierce fighting with the Jesuits, who claimed ownership of this land, where there was built this magnificent synagogue. The Jewish community has won, and the synagogue, named TaZ (an abbreviation from "Turei Zahav" that is the name of the world-famous commentary by Rabbi David HaLevi Segal on the "Shulchan Aruch"), or "Die Gildene Royze" ("Golden Rose" in honor of the Nachmanowicz's daughter-in-low who died for mysterious circumstances) remained at the same place till the Holocaust.


The "Turei Zahav" Synagogue. The painting by A. Kamenobrodsky, on the beginning of the 20th century.

The buildings of the Jewish street were severely damaged by the fire on the 17th of February in 1645. The both of the communities of Lviv were severely affected during the siege of the city by cossacks of B. Khmelnitsky (1648-1649) and in the subsequent wars of the second half of the 17th and the early 18th centuries, especially large damage was done for the community of Krakow suburb. Their houses became an enemy’s prey, and they sought the refuge in the city. The fight of the Christian population of the city with the Jews, who figured prominently in trade and crafts, continued despite the active participation of Jews in defense of the city (mainly in repelling of the attacks of Russian forces in the Russian-Polish War in 1654-1667). There were very often riots in 1572, 1592, 1613, 1618, 1638 and 1664 and later, which were organized by the gentry, soldiers and students of the Jesuit College.

During the sieges of the city in 1648 by Bohdan Khmelnytsky and in 1655 by Russian forces on the demand to give all Jewish people the city together with the qahal gave the ransom. The wave of religious intolerance, which widened in Poland during the "Swedish flood", in 1664, has affected the Jewish communities of Lviv, 129 Jews were killed and many buildings were destroyed. Then Jesuit students plundered and fired the Suburban synagogue where died over a hundred people. King Jan Kazimierz made a trial of the perpetrators and punished 16 consuls and the mayor put them to the prison for six weeks because of this pogrom. Many Jewish houses burnt during the Swedish invasion in 1704. In addition, the community had to pay the Swedes a large ransom they demanded in very cruel way: while the baskets were filled with gold and silver, the city rabbis were hanging on the gallows built in the yard. Jewish communities, along with other, had to pay ransoms during others sieges too. Anti-Semitic sentiments in the city increased: in 1710 the Jewish woman Adele from Drohobych was executed because of unfair accusation in the death of a Christian child, and the judges promised "justify" her if she will accept the ideas of Christianity. Also in the spring of 1728 the Rabbi of Shchyretz and two brothers - Chaim and Yehoshua Reitzesses were imprisoned and sentenced to death. The Rabbi of Shchyretz escaped from prison, Yehoshua Reitzess committed suicide in prison, but only Chaim Reitzess was offered to leave him alive if he will accept the ideas of Christianity. Chaim bravely endured the tortures and died. The Jewish community bought the ashes of two brothers and buried it in the Old Jewish cemetery in one grave by setting a high matzeva, the epitaph on which begins with the words: "And all Israel cried...". Even in those cruel times this case was so wild that the Paris newspaper wrote about it twice.

Later the construction of the intercity Jewish quarter tightened so much so in the second half of the 17th century after the cossack's, Tatarian and Russian invasions the Jews of Lviv began to emigrate to the surrounding villages and settle out of the ghetto: on the lands of the Benedictian systers, on the land of Yablonovsky and, above all, on the Zarvanska street (now the part  of Staroyevreyska street) and on the Ruska street, renting apartments and shops in the houses of the nobility, clergy and citizens. This fact led to the new royal decrees restricting the rights of Jews. Only after their abolition in 1668 the Jews of Lviv got the right to possess their sacred buildings freely, but they ensured to restore them.

Some magnates and gentry representatives have supported the Jews oppose the demands of citizens to prohibit Jews to settle outside the Jewish quarter and limit the amounts of their trade, and have highly appreciated the benefits that the Jews brought to the state treasury and to the estates of the private landowners. Despite the various disasters of the second half of the 17th century Lviv attracted the Jews to live there. "Lviv has 6,000 residents that are engaged in a great business" - wrote in his diary German traveler Ulrich von Werdum, who in 1670-1672 travelled to Ukraine - "many Jews live here, moreover, they have their own street in the city and also two synagogues on this street". In 1708 the whole Market Place was filled with Jewish shops, which were located on the part of the yard, even in the royal house, and only in some cases they were located on the front side.

The trouble covered a number of Eastern European Jewish communities with the appearance of Sabbathian movement and the arguments around it affected the communities of Lviv. Av beis-din of Lviv Rabbi David HaLevi Segal sent his son and stepson to Shabtai Zvi, and they returned as his ardent supporters. But after the collapse of the Sabbathian movement the conflict in the community escalated and in 1722 the supporters of the Sabbathian movement were under Herem. Thirty-two years later the Lviv community was concerned about the re-visit of Leib Kriss (after the christening - Jan Dominique Krysynsky) who distributed the teaching of the other pseudo-Messiah Ya.Franko. The founder of the frankists sect arrived to the city in December in 1755, but on the demand of the Jewish community board he was forced to leave the city, and in summer 1756 this sect was under herem.

After Lviv became the center of anti-Jewish actions that unfolded by the frankist's instigation of the prelates of the Catholic Church against the Orthodox Jews of Poland, in November 1757 on the town square there  the collected from everywhere tomes of the Talmud were burned; in 1758 frankists published in Lviv 9 dogmas of their faith, and in 1759 frankists were christened; on the 12th of July and on the 10th of September in 1759 a great dispute took place between the followers of Franco, who made a blood libel against Jews, and prominent rabbis of south-eastern Poland led by Rabbi of Lviv and region, av beis-din Rabbi Chaim ben Simkha HaKohen Rapoport (1700-1771). Until January 1760 in Lviv more than 500 frankists including Ya. Frank himself, his wife and children were christened.

In the second half of the 17th century many Jews of Lviv (primarily residents of the Jewish street) due to overcrowding of neighborhoods began to move to the towns, which belonged to the Polish and Russian aristocrats - Zhovkva, Svirzh, Buchach, and in the late 17th century they began to move to Brody.

Throughout the 18th century the authority of the community management was shaken because of the narrowing of its impact after joining of the Podillya land to Turkey (1672-1699) and the refusal of the regional district organizations to submit to the jurisdiction of the Jewish community of Lviv and its rabbi (1720). The expanding of the communities of the surrounding towns (Brody, Zhovkva, etc.) limited the power of the Lviv community, not all communities wanted to obey to the beis-din of Lviv. The economic situation of the community in Lviv significantly affected by the payment of war indemnities, and the attacks and looting during the Northern War of 1700-1721 led the community to the financial collapse. The community board after the dissolution of the association of the Jewish communities with 7 elected heads could not return in time to the local government and Catholic church taken loans from them and in 1770 went bankrupt (in 1874 the debt of the community amounted to about 500 millions zlotyh).

In the second half of the 18th century in Ukraine, as in the whole Galicia, the new religious and mystical direction of Judaism direction named chassidism and based on the Orthodox Judaism and Kabbalah spread. Despite the resistance of leading orthodox rabbis - misnagdim, chassidism was supported by the Jewish community and the rabbi of the city Rabbi Zvi Rozanes. The rabbi of the synagogue "Golden Rose" Rabbi Menachem Margoliyot (1740-1801) helped to spread the spiritual ideas of chassidism in Lviv.


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